In particle physics, the tracking is the act of measuring the direction and magnitude of charged particlesmomenta. The particles entering a tracker (the device used for tracking), release part of their energy in the device: the tracker has to be finely segmented in order to be able to reconstruct with good precision where the particle passed. Since the tracking is usually made in a region where a magnetic field is present, it is possible to reconstruct part of the helix made by the particle inside the tracker (that is called track), and from the track parameters, and by knowing the mass of the particle under study (which is known by the use of particle identification), it is possible to reconstruct the actual direction and magnitude of the particle momenta. From these information the tracking of charged particles can be used to reconstruct secondary decays, this can be done for B-tagging (in experiments like CDF or at LHC) or to fully reconstruct events (like in BaBar and Belle).
Tracking, one of the first freefall skills learned by a novice skydiver, is the technique of assuming a body position that allows the skydiver to move horizontally while freefalling.
Although there are many variations of the basic body position it essentially involves the skydiver moving out of the traditional face to earth arched position, straightening the legs, bringing the arms to the sides and de-arching, using the body to cup the air as a means of providing greater lift. There is, however, debate over what exactly constitutes the most efficient tracking position (providing the best glide ratio) especially concerning how far (if at all) the skydiver's legs should be spread. Some variations of the tracking position work well for some individuals and not so well for others. Also, when a skydiver gains experience, his or her preferred body position often changes.
It is claimed that good trackers can cover nearly as much ground as the distance they fall, approaching a glide ratio of 1:1. It is known that the fall rate of a skydiver in an efficient track is significantly lower than that of one falling in a traditional face-to-earth position; the former reaching speeds as low as 90mph, the latter averaging around the 120mph mark.
Tracking is a technique in which dogs are trained to locate certain objects by using the object's scent, for a variety of purposes.
Tracking has always been an essential skill for dogs to survive in the wild, through hunting and tracking down potential prey.
Physiological Mechanisms of Tracking
Primarily, dogs use their sense of smell, to find and follow a track. Dogs have a highly sensitive olfactory system superior to humans, and are able to discriminate between different human’s scents. Moreover, dogs are also able to use visual cues to follow a track.
Phases of tracking
There are three phases, which complete the process of tracking:
1. Searching Phase
2. Deciding Phase
3. Tracking phase
Factors influencing a dog’s tracking ability
There are several factors which influences a dog’s ability to track:
Physiological features of the dog are a factor. Some instances include with age, sex are influences. As a dog ages, their olfactory acuity decreases and decreases their ability to track. Furthermore, male dogs have found to be better at tracking than females, possibly due to sex differences in olfaction. Sniffing behaviour also influences olfaction, and therefore a dog’s ability to track. For example, a dog’s ability to sniff is higher when it is not panting due to fatigue – it is physically impossible for a dog to both pant and sniff at the same time and the mouth must be open or closed respectively
. However, dogs trained to track during physically demanding activities may have adapted their behaviour by increasing sniffing frequency to maximize olfaction, and tracking. Also, different dog breeds have varying suitability to different tasks of tracking. For example, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives use Labrador Retrievers for their tracking purposes.
Marines, also known as a marine corps and naval infantry, are an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations on land and at sea, as well as the execution of their own operations. In the majority of countries, the marine force is part of the navy, but it can also be under the army like the Troupes de marine (French Marines) and Givati Brigade (Israeli Marines), or form an independent armed service branch like the United States Marine Corps and Royal Marines.
Historically, tasks undertaken by marines have included providing protection from war while at sea, reflecting the pressed nature of the ships' company and the risk of mutiny. Other tasks would include boarding of vessels during combat or capture of prize ships and providing manpower for raiding ashore in support of the naval objectives.
With the industrialization of warfare in the 20th century the scale of landing operations increased; this brought with it an increased likelihood of opposition and a need for co-ordination of various military elements. Marine forces evolved to specialize in the skills and capabilities required for amphibious warfare.